Anthony Easthope asks,
‘How is it that within five or six years the newly arrived [baby] you bring home with you from the hospital has become a person, who speaks your language, shares your assumptions, can go off to school and answer its own name when the teacher calls it out?’
For therapists, the formation of our identity is a consequence of our identifications, and these first begin during the mirror-phase.
The idea of the mirror-phase was developed by psychologists after observing babies aged between 6-18 months when placed in front of a mirror.
As you can see in this video clip, after the mother shows her child their reflection in the mirror, the child becomes captivated.
Notice the child’s energetic delight as they assume the reflection as their own. It is as though the image has a structuring effect, lending the child a degree of unity and coherence they do not yet possess.
The Rouge Test
The rouge test suggests that by around 18-24 months the identification between image and self has become relatively unified and coherent.
In the rouge test a mark is made on the child’s nose before they are placed in front of the mirror.
That an identity between image and self has finally been assumed is suggested by the child drawing attention to the mark on their nose.
This is the moment at which the child formulates, however roughly, ‘I am that image’ and ‘That image is me’.
Therapy and the Mirror-phase
For psychologists, the mirror-phase belongs to a specific stage in the development of the human baby.
However, psychotherapists take the mirror-phase to exemplify or represent a fundamental process that stays with us all our lives.
It is one that need not necessarily involve literal mirrors since the mirror that matters to us is other people.
Nor need the images be visual in character. For example, we might recognise ourselves in things said to us: you’re the best daughter in the world!
So in our day-to-day life we are continually being caught and captivated by images in which we are invited to recognise ourselves.
If you ask yourself “Who am I?” you might be surprised what surfaces for you.
During therapy many clients find themselves automatically becoming aware of and calling into question their identifications.
Identity and the Other Place
The two videos of an infant in front of a mirror also alert us to another feature of the mirror-phase.
The moment each child ecstatically assumes the reflection as their own, they turn towards their mother, as though to call on her to confirm and ratify that the image is an image of them.
In other words, the mirror image takes on such importance as a result of the parent’s approval – ‘Yes baby, that’s you!‘
So our identity not only depends on relations of sameness but also on something quite abstract or Other: the child internalising its caregivers ideas and then judging itself in relation to those ideas.
The Other is embodied for someone or something else
This Other is embodied for someone or something else. It is the basis for the development of language, the unconscious, morality and the law.
Perhaps we can hear the very beginnings of this Other in the mother’s comment addressed to her child at the end of the second video: So you know it’s you… I knew you would know!
You will be judged accordingly…
The image below, taken from the website Fabulous Life, interweaves these two dimensions to our sense of self. The self dependent on relations of similarity/sameness is related to or is framed by something abstract (notice the use of the word ‘judged’ in the caption to the image).
Once again, as therapy proceeds many clients automatically become aware of and call into question this Other for whom they are embodying themselves, perhaps through identity words such as Millennial, Outgoing, Straight, English, Victim, Daughter, Obsessive…
Not everyone will answer their name
We began with Easthope drawing our attention to something truly remarkable. How, within five or six years of being born, a relatively stable and coherent sense of self comes into being – a person who can speak, go off to school and answer its own name when the teacher calls it out.
However, as we’ve seen, this all depends on the baby being welcomed into the world of its caregivers.
There’s no guarantee that this will happen or will happen consistently: not everyone answers their name when called.
Anthony Easthope asks the question on page 59 of his clear and accessible book, The Unconscious, 1999.
The page from Fabulous Life (accessed June 2019) is here,